June 1 - 10

 

Racine has 15 hours and 16 minutes of daylight and Superior has 15 hours and 47 minutes of daylight at the end of the period. Southern Wisconsin gains 11 minutes of daylight and northern Wisconsin has 12 minutes more than the previous period. The full moon for 2015 falls on June 2. Names for this full moon are Dryad (pairing), Rose or Strawberry depending on different cultural traditions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June Birding is for Conservation: The easy of seeing an early May fliting, tree-top warbler is long gone. Dense foliage can make seeing the colorful Scarlet Tanager difficult in June. Primary birding is now by sound with precious glimpses of plumage a real treat. Conservationist, however, conclude June is the most critical time for bird conservation.  Yes, winter habitat and fitness provided by stopover food sources is very important, but Wisconsin’s primary role is quality breeding bird habitat. Birding in June gives the outdoor enthusiast the knowledge needed to make a difference for the future of Wisconsin’s birds.

 

The GNW ecologist used over 40 years of breeding bird data conducted on over 400 sites to prepare this document of regarding the relative importance of each bird habitat for birds in the state.

 

Wisconsin’s Bird Habitats

 

Many articles are available regarding the connections between habitat and bird use. An excellent series appeared in the Passenger Pigeon in the late 1980’s through the early 1990s. Unfortunately for many new and occasional birders and especially non-birding outdoor enthusiasts, these articles are rather technical and require a considerable knowledge of plant taxonomy and natural community recognition. Many times these articles focus on the best remaining natural communities we have, but fail to discuss the most characteristic birds found in habitats.

 

To get a better understanding of what an average naturalist can expect, a more simplified description of general habitats is presented. The habitats are listed in order of abundance in the state. Data to determine the acres of habitat were gleaned for agricultural statistics, Forest Inventory and Assessment data, wetlands data, Wiscland satellite data, and Natural Heritage Inventory data to name a few. The number of acres presented is most definitely not 100% accurate, because no one has calculated the precise acres in these categories. The data is the best available we have now and is expected to be within 10% on way or the other of being accurate. Due to rounding of data, the totals do not equal the exact number of land and water acres in the state.

 

Cropland – 9,500,000 acres

Cropland features row crops such as corn, soybeans, small grains, vegetables and berries and also includes alfalfa. The reason for the last crop is due to the early and persistent cutting of the crop, which provides little habitat for grassland birds. This habitat also includes sparse fencerows, fallow areas and bare soil fields. In total, this habitat comprises approximately 9,500,000 acres in the state. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Canada Goose, Mallard, Ring-necked Pheasant, Gray Partridge (rare), Killdeer, Sandhill Crane, Rock Pigeon, Northern Flicker, Horned Lark, American Robin, European Starling, Savannah Sparrow, Chipping Sparrow, Vesper Sparrow, American Goldfinch, and House Sparrow.

 

Fragmented Woodlots (etc.) – 5,400,000 acres

Small woodlots, densely vegetated fencerows, rural lots, cabin sites – In essence the scattered woodlot parts of farms, large well vegetated suburban lots, densely clustered cabin sites, wooded and grassy waterways in agricultural country. Predominant habitat can be old trees or young shrubs, but the primary factor is heavy fragmentation of former contiguous habitat. In total, these habitats comprise approximately 5,400,000 acres in the state. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Ring-necked Pheasant, Wild Turkey, Turkey Vulture, Cooper’s Hawk Red-tailed Hawk, Mourning Dove, Eastern Screech Owl, Great-horned Owl, Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Red-bellied Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Blue Jay, American Crow, Tree Swallow, Barn Swallow, Black-capped Chickadee, White-breasted Nuthatch, House Wren, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Eastern Bluebird, American Robin, Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher, Cedar Waxwing, Blue-winged Warbler, Yellow Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, Eastern Towhee, Chipping Sparrow, Vesper Sparrow, Song Sparrow, Northern Cardinal, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Indigo Bunting, Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle, Brown-headed Cowbird, House Finch, and American Goldfinch.

 

Northern Hardwood Forests – 5,300,000 acres

Nearly contiguous and intensively managed forest occupied by smaller diameter hardwoods, mostly maples, aspen, and white birch, but other northern species are included. The trees are usually between 20 and 80 years old and have very sparse under story and sapling layer. Gaps are infrequent due to this being the dense growth stage that self-thins as the densely packed trees compete. Some species more commonly found in young deciduous forest are found along the edges of these forests along roads or in managed areas.  In total, these habitats comprise approximately 5,300,000 acres of land mostly in northern Wisconsin. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Broad-winged Hawk, Ruffed Grouse, Black-billed Cuckoo, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Least Flycatcher, Yellow-throated Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Blue Jay, American Crow, Black-capped Chickadee, White-breasted Nuthatch, House Wren (Lake Superior Counties), Hermit Thrush, Veery, American Robin, Nashville Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Black and White Warbler, American Redstart, Ovenbird, Scarlet Tanager (older aged trees), White-throated Sparrow, Rose-breasted Grosbeak.

 

Open Water – 2,300,000 acres

Open Water – Including all lakes, streams, and the Great Lakes with their bays and estuaries. Water is the main habitat and obviously the birds do not nest in the water. The habitat also includes the emergent vegetation, islets and cobble areas. Not included in the acres are deep marsh areas, wild rice marsh and backwater/oxbow areas. The habitat is used mostly for foraging and loafing. The inclusion of the deep portions of the Great Lakes brings the total habitat to approximately 2,300,000 acres. Species characteristically associated with these water habitats are Canada Goose, Mute Swan (local), Trumpeter Swan (local), Tundra Swan, Gadwall, American Wigeon, American Black Duck, Mallard, Northern Shoveler, Canvasback, Redhead, Ring-necked Duck, Greater Scaup, Lesser Scaup, Surf Scoter (Great Lakes – rare), White-winged Scoter (Great Lakes – rare), Black Scoter (Great Lakes – rare), Long-tailed Duck (great Lakes – rare), Bufflehead, Common Goldeneye, Hooded Merganser, Common Merganser, Red-breasted Merganser, Ruddy Duck, Red-throated Loon (rare), Common Loon, Pied-billed Grebe, Horned Grebe, American White Pelican, Double-crested Cormorant,  Osprey, Bald Eagle, American Coot (more so in fall and winter), Spotted Sandpiper, Bonaparte’s Gull, Ring-billed Gull, Herring Gull, Glaucous Gull (winter), Great Black-backed Gull (more so in winter), Caspian Tern, Common Tern, Forster’s Tern, Belted Kingfisher, Purple Martin, Tree Swallow, Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Bank Swallow, Cliff Swallow, and Barn Swallow.

 

Young Deciduous Forest – 1,500,000 acres

Young Deciduous Forest - Nearly contiguous forest occupied by young hardwoods, mostly maples, aspen, oak, and white birch, but other northern species are included. The trees are usually between 1 and 20 years old and have very dense coverage by saplings. Gaps are infrequent due to this being the densest growth stage. These forests often have a lot of edge between adjacent forest stands of different ages, types or from roads.  In total, these habitats comprise approximately 1,500,000 acres of land mostly in northern Wisconsin. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Ruffed Grouse, Black-billed Cuckoo, Downy Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Alder Flycatcher, Eastern Kingbird, Red-eyed Vireo, American Crow, Black-capped Chickadee, House Wren, Veery, Hermit Thrush, American Robin, Gray Catbird (more often south), Brown Thrasher, Golden-winged Warbler (patchy distribution), Nashville Warbler, Chestnut-sided Warbler (most abundant species), Black and White Warbler, American Redstart, Ovenbird, Mourning Warbler, Eastern Towhee (drier sites), Chipping Sparrow, Song Sparrow, White-throated Sparrow, Indigo Bunting, and Brown-headed Cowbird.

 

Mature Oak-Hickory Forest – 950,000 acres

Mature oak-hickory forest occupying blocks larger than 100 acres. This habitat features primarily red oak and shagbark hickory, but also includes white ash, sugar and red maple, and American basswood to name a few. The trees are mostly over 80 years old and need to be in larger blocks to harbor some of the more area sensitive species. This habitat covers approximately 950,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Cooper’s Hawk, Broad-winged Hawk, Great-horned Owl, Barred Owl, Whip-poor-will (edges or pure oak forests), Red-bellied Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Pileated Woodpecker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Acadian Flycatcher (moist coves), Great-crested Flycatcher, Yellow-throated Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Blue Jay, Black-capped Chickadee, Tufted Titmouse, White-breasted Nuthatch, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Wood Thrush, American Robin, Cerulean Warbler, American Redstart (lower slopes and ravines), Ovenbird, Louisiana Waterthrush (streams within the forest), Hooded Warbler (dense shrubs), Kentucky Warbler (primarily southwest Wisconsin), Scarlet Tanager, Chipping Sparrow, Northern Cardinal, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Indigo Bunting (gaps), Brown-headed Cowbird, and Baltimore Oriole (near water or edge).

 

Mature Northern Hardwood Forest – 850,000 acres

Mature northern hardwood forest occupying blocks larger than 100 acres. This habitat features primarily sugar maple, American basswood, yellow birch, and white ash. In northeast and east central Wisconsin American beech can be a strong component of the woods. The trees are mostly over 80 years old and need to be in larger blocks to harbor some of the more area sensitive species. This habitat covers approximately 850,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Red-shouldered Hawk (rare), Broad-winged Hawk, Barred Owl, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Pileated Woodpecker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Least Flycatcher, Red-eyed Vireo, Blue Jay, American Crow, Common Raven, Black-capped Chickadee, White-breasted Nuthatch, Winter Wren, Hermit Thrush, Veery, Wood Thrush, American Robin, Black-throated Blue Warbler (dense understory), Black-throated Green Warbler, Black and White Warbler, American Redstart (lower slopes and near streams), Ovenbird, Canada Warbler (dense understory), Scarlet Tanager, and Rose-breasted Grosbeak.

 

Pasture – 750,000 acres

Pasture land is comprised of actively grazed short to moderate height Eurasian grasses, most characteristically Kentucky bluegrass. In total, this habitat comprises approximately 750,000 acres. Species characteristically found in this habitat are Red-tailed Hawk, American Kestrel (if nest boxes are provided), Killdeer (heavily grazed area), Upland Sandpiper (moderate grazing), Buff-breasted Sandpiper (closely grazed moist areas), Sandhill Crane (moist areas), Rock Pigeon, Mourning Dove, Horned Lark (heavily grazed areas), Barn Swallow, American Crow, Brown Thrasher (edges), Chipping Sparrow, Field Sparrow (edges), Clay-colored Sparrow (moderate grazed areas north), Savannah Sparrow (moderate grazed areas), Grasshopper Sparrow (moderate grazed areas), Bobolink, Brewer’s Blackbird, Eastern Meadowlark, Western Meadowlark (drier areas in large open landscapes), and House Sparrow.

 

Hardwood Swamp – 700,000 acres  

Hardwood Swamp areas feature black ash and red maple with few, if any white cedar. These areas are most often found in low areas in rolling landscape, but also occupy large areas of flat ground moraine in north central Wisconsin. Isolated areas in more developed landscapes contain fewer species. In total, this habitat comprises approximately 700,000 acres. Species characteristically found in this habitat are American Woodcock, Barred Owl, Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Pileated Woodpecker, Great-crested Flycatcher, Eastern Kingbird, Tree Swallow, Red-eyed Vireo, Black-capped Chickadee, Cedar Waxwing, Black and White Warbler, American Redstart, Ovenbird, Northern Waterthrush, Mourning Warbler, Canada Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Song Sparrow, Swamp Sparrow, Red-winged Blackbird, and Common Grackle.

 

Red Pine Plantations – 650,000 acres

Red Pine plantations feature heavily managed red pine monocultures planted in rows. Not included in the species list are those found in the very young conifers that are covered under a separate category below. In total, this habitat comprises approximately 650,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Mourning Dove, Great-horned Owl, Long-eared Owl (occasional winter roosts), Blue Jay, American Crow, Blue-headed Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Least Flycatcher, Black-capped Chickadee, Red-breasted Nuthatch (after the trees reach 30 years old), Hermit Thrush, American Robin, Nashville Warbler, Yellow-rumped Warbler (north), Pine Warbler (when trees reach 50+ years), Ovenbird, Chipping Sparrow, Brown-headed Cowbird and Red Crossbill (when trees reach 50+ years).

 

Successional Oldfields – 640,000 acres

Oldfield succession habitats feature former agriculture areas that have been discontinued from active agriculture. These areas are in various states of natural succession to a forested landscape. They can be in upland or lowlands and often times have abundant shrubs and young trees in variable densities. In total, these habits comprise approximately 640,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Ring-necked Pheasant, Northern Harrier, Red-tailed Hawk, American Kestrel (if nest boxes are provided), American Woodcock, Sandhill Crane, Mourning Dove, Short-eared Owl (mostly winter), Northern Flicker, Willow Flycatcher (south), Eastern Kingbird, American Crow, Tree Swallow, Barn Swallow, Sedge Wren, Eastern Bluebird (if nest boxes are provided), American Robin, Sedge Wren, Gray Catbird (edges), Brown Thrasher (edges), Cedar Waxwing, European Starling, Blue-winged Warbler (south), Chestnut-sided Warbler (north), Common Yellowthroat, Eastern Towhee, Chipping Sparrow, Clay-colored Sparrow (north), Field Sparrow (south), Song Sparrow, Indigo Bunting, Eastern Meadowlark and Brown-headed Cowbird. 

 

Urban Areas – 610,000 acres

Urban areas feature densely developed areas, backyards, vacant lots, tall cliffs (buildings) and parks. In total, these habits comprise approximately 610,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Peregrine Falcon, Rock Pigeon, Mourning Dove, Screech Owl, Common Nighthawk, Chimney Swift, Red-bellied Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Eastern Phoebe, Red-eyed Vireo, Purple Martin, Tree Swallow, Cliff Swallow, Blue Jay, American Crow, Tree Swallow, Barn Swallow, Black-capped Chickadee, White-breasted Nuthatch, House Wren, American Robin, Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher, Cedar Waxwing, European Starling, Yellow Warbler (waterways), Chipping Sparrow, Song Sparrow, Northern Cardinal, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle, Brown-headed Cowbird, Baltimore Oriole, House Finch, American Goldfinch, and House Sparrow. 

 

Shrub Swamp – 600,000 acres

Shrub Swamp areas feature alder thickets, willow dominated stream courses, dogwoods, and bog birch areas. Even though these areas are have shrubs as dominant species, they are relatively long-lasting natural communities. Case in point, the French explorers found alder thickets along the Bois Brule River in the precisely the same location they found today. In total, these habits comprise approximately 600,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Ring-necked Pheasant, Northern Harrier, Wilson’s Snipe, American Woodcock, Short-eared Owl (mostly winter), Downy Woodpecker, Alder Flycatcher (north), Willow Flycatcher (south), Eastern Phoebe, Eastern Kingbird, Tree Swallow, Barn Swallow, Blue Jay, Black-capped Chickadee, Sedge Wren, Veery, American Robin, Gray Catbird, Cedar Waxwing, Golden-winged Warbler, Yellow Warbler, Chestnut-sided Warbler (north), American Redstart, Mourning Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, Song Sparrow, Lincoln’s Sparrow (north), Swamp Sparrow, White-throated Sparrow (north), Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle, Brown-headed Cowbird and American Goldfinch.

 

Mature Northern Hemlock-Hardwood Forest – 600,000 acres 

Mature northern hemlock-hardwood areas feature large contiguous blocks of forest older than 80 years. These areas are predominately occupied by sugar maple, basswood, yellow, birch, eastern hemlock and white pine. The mixed forest usually has a significant understory of dense deciduous or conifer saplings. Many times dense areas of balsam fir are in the understory. This habitat covers approximately 600,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Ruffed Grouse, Sharp-shined Hawk, Northern Goshawk, Red-shouldered Hawk, Broad-winged Hawk, Great-horned Owl, Barred Owl, Northern Saw-whet Owl, Chimney Swift, Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Pileated Woodpecker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Least Flycatcher, Great-crested Flycatcher, Blue-headed Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Blue Jay, American Crow, Common Raven, Black-capped Chickadee, Red-breasted Nuthatch, White-breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper, Veery, Hermit Thrush, Swainson’s Thrush (old-growth stands with conifers), American Robin, Black-throated Blue Warbler (dense understory), Black-throated Green Warbler, Blackburnian Warbler, Black and White Warbler, American Redstart (lower slopes and near streams), Ovenbird, Mourning Warbler (gaps), Canada Warbler (dense understory), Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Chipping Sparrow (gaps near conifers), White-throated Sparrow, and Purple Finch.

 

Spruce Tamarack Forest – 600,000 acres

Spruce-tamarack wet forest features the more productive portions of these wetland forest communities often referred to as bogs. The dominant species are black spruce and tamarack, sometimes they are found as single species forests, but most often they are found together. The most productive areas will have very large trees and if they cover significant portions of the landscape they will support the most diverse species composition. In total this habitat covers approximately 600,000 acres. Species characteristically found in this habitat are Spruce Grouse (if the habitat is large and its embedding in a conifer dominated landscape), Northern Saw-whet Owl, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Black-backed Woodpecker (if the habitat is large and its embedding in a conifer dominated landscape), Olive-sided Flycatcher, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (large trees), Gray Jay (only in larger patches), Blue Jay, Black-capped Chickadee, Boreal Chickadee (only in larger patches), Red-breasted Nuthatch, Winter Wren (older patches), Golden-crowned Kinglet, Ruby-crowned Kinglet (far north), Swainson’s Thrush (old-growth in far north),  Hermit Thrush, Cedar Waxwing, Nashville Warbler, Northern Parula (old trees with moss), Magnolia Warbler (dense understory), Cape May Warbler (very large trees), Yellow-rumped Warbler, Black & White Warbler, Ovenbird (old patches), Connecticut Warbler (large patches), Common Yellowthroat, Canada Warbler (near upland edges), White-throated Sparrow, Dark-eyed Junco (far north), Purple Finch, and White-winged Crossbill.

 

Mature Pine-Oak Forest – 600,000 acres

Mature Pine-Oak mixed forest features large blocks of older forest dominated by white pine, red pine, red oak, and patches of aspen and white birch. This forest is best represented in the Northern Highland American Legion State Forest, and the western part of the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, but is represented elsewhere in the north. This habitat covers approximately 600,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Ruffed Grouse, Bald Eagle, Sharp-shined Hawk, Broad-winged Hawk, Mourning Dove, Great-horned Owl, Barred Owl, Northern Saw-whet Owl, Chimney Swift, Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Pileated Woodpecker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Least Flycatcher, Great-crested Flycatcher, Blue-headed Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Blue Jay, American Crow, Common Raven, Black-capped Chickadee, Red-breasted Nuthatch, White-breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper, Veery, Hermit Thrush, American Robin, Cedar Waxwing, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Pine Warbler, Black and White Warbler, Ovenbird, Mourning Warbler (gaps), Common Yellowthroat, Canada Warbler (dense understory), Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Indigo Bunting, Chipping Sparrow, White-throated Sparrow, Brown-headed Cowbird, Baltimore Oriole, Red Crossbill, and Evening Grosbeak.

 

Surrogate Grasslands – 550,000 acres

Grassland Areas comprised of predominately Eurasian grasses, such as smooth brome, Kentucky Bluegrass, timothy, and quackgrass. These areas are best described as Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) locations, abandoned fields, and northern Wisconsin late hay harvest areas. In many case, these areas also have an abundance of Eurasian flowering plants (forbs) associated with the grass. These habitats are rather ephemeral in nature requiring regular maintenance (haying, mowing or prescribed fire to maintain them. In total, these habitats comprise approximately 550,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Ring-necked Pheasant, Red-tailed Hawk, American Kestrel (if nest boxes are provided), Upland Sandpiper, Mourning Dove, Short-eared Owl (mostly winter), Northern Flicker, American Crow, Eastern Bluebird (if nest boxes are provided), American Robin, Sedge Wren, Gray Catbird (edges), Brown Thrasher (edges), European Starling, Chipping Sparrow, Vesper Sparrow, Savannah Sparrow, Grasshopper Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Henslow’s Sparrow (south), LeConte’s Sparrow (north), Northern Cardinal (edges), Indigo Bunting (edges), Dickcissel (abundant forbs), Bobolink, Red-winged Blackbird, Eastern Meadowlark, and Western Meadowlark (drier areas in large open landscapes). 

 

Paved Areas – 500,000 acres

Paved Areas cover more than 500,000 acres and provide little bird habitat. Occasionally grebes and loons will land on rain reflected pavement. The primary bird users of the roads are Turkey Vultures feeding on flattened fauna.

 

Black Oak Forest – 450,000 acres

Dry black oak forest features black oak, northern pin oak, occasional white oak and black cherry. These forests can be quite devoid of underbrush when a thick Pennsylvania sedge sod develops or can have a health shrub layer of brambles, hazel and young oaks. In total, this habitat covers approximately 450,000 acres mostly in central and northwest Wisconsin. Species characteristically found in this habitat are Turkey Vulture, Cooper’s Hawk, Red-tailed Hawk, Black-billed Cuckoo, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Screech Owl, Great-horned Owl, Common Nighthawk, Whip-poor-will, Red-headed Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Eastern Phoebe, Great-crested Flycatcher, Yellow-throated Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Blue Jay, American Crow, Black-capped Chickadee, Tufted Titmouse (old-growth stands), White-breasted Nuthatch, American Robin, Brown Thrasher, European Starling, Blue-winged Warbler, Chestnut-sided Warbler, Ovenbird, Scarlet Tanager, Eastern Towhee, Chipping Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Northern Cardinal, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Brown-headed Cowbird, and Baltimore Oriole.

 

Bottomland Hardwoods – 450,000 acres

Bottomland hardwoods feature the complex system of habitats created by water moving soil near large rivers in an ever-shifting pattern. Many areas have old trees that have been in place for centuries, where as other habitats are newly formed sand bars. Included in the description are oxbow ponds, emergent wetlands, early succession sandbars through old swamp white oak stands. These habitats cover approximately 450,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Canada Goose, Wood Duck, Hooded Merganser, Great-Blue Heron, Green Heron, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (rare), Red-shouldered Hawk, American Woodcock, Black-billed Cuckoo, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Screech Owl, Great-horned Owl, Barred Owl, Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Red-bellied Woodpecker, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Pileated Woodpecker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Least Flycatcher, Great-crested Flycatcher, Yellow-throated Vireo, Warbling Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Tree Swallow, Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Bank Swallow, Blue Jay, Black-capped Chickadee, Tufted Titmouse, White-breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper, Carolina Wren (populations fluctuate), House Wren, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Veery, Wood Thrush, American Robin, Gray Catbird, Blue-winged Warbler (south), Golden-winged Warbler (north), Yellow Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, American Redstart, Prothonotary Warbler, Ovenbird, Louisiana Waterthrush, Kentucky Warbler, Mourning Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, Scarlet Tanager, Chipping Sparrow, Northern Cardinal, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Indigo Bunting, Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle, Brown-headed Cowbird, Baltimore Oriole and American Goldfinch.

 

Reed Canary Grass Wetlands – 450,000 acres

Reed canary grass wetlands are dominated mostly by one species of plant. Many times scattered woody growth occurs, but when the woody growth dies new trees and shrubs find it hard to compete. This habitat covers approximately 450,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Sedge Wren, Common Yellowthroat, Song Sparrow and Red-winged Blackbird.

 

Cedar Swamps – 350,000 acres

White cedar swamps feature those forests with a preponderance of white cedar. Commonly black ash, yellow birch, eastern hemlock, white pine and balsam fir are associated with the cedar.  These communities are long-lasting and harbor a greater proportion of old-growth than any other natural community in the state. In total, this habitat covers approximately 350,000 acres. Species characteristically found in this habitat are Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Pileated Woodpecker, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Gray Jay (only in larger patches), Blue Jay, Black-capped Chickadee, Red-breasted Nuthatch, Winter Wren, Golden-crowned Kinglet, Swainson’s Thrush (old-growth in far north), Hermit Thrush, Cedar Waxwing, Nashville Warbler, Northern Parula (old trees with moss), Magnolia Warbler (dense understory), Yellow-rumped Warbler, Black & White Warbler, Ovenbird, Northern Waterthrush, Common Yellowthroat, Canada Warbler, White-throated Sparrow, and Purple Finch.

 

Natural Origin Pine Forests – 350,000 acres

Natural origin pine forest features large blocks of older forest dominated by white and red pine, with of aspen, oak and white birch. This habitat covers approximately 350,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Ruffed Grouse, Broad-winged Hawk, Great-horned Owl, Barred Owl (old stands), Chimney Swift, Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Whip-poor-will, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Pileated Woodpecker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (old stands), Least Flycatcher, Great-crested Flycatcher, Blue-headed Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Blue Jay, American Crow, Common Raven, Black-capped Chickadee, Red-breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper (old stands), Hermit Thrush, American Robin, Cedar Waxwing, Nashville Warbler, Magnolia Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Blackburnian Warbler, Pine Warbler, Black and White Warbler, Ovenbird, Mourning Warbler (gaps), Common Yellowthroat, Canada Warbler (dense understory), Chipping Sparrow, White-throated Sparrow, Brown-headed Cowbird, Purple Finch, Pine Siskin, Red Crossbill, and Evening Grosbeak.

 

Jack Pine Forest – 350,000 acres

Jack pine forest features jack pine and northern pin oak dominated stands with patches of aspen and white birch. Jack pine normally is short-lived with stands breaking up well before they reach 100years old. This habitat covers approximately 350,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Mourning Dove, Whip-poor-will, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Eastern Kingbird, Blue Jay, American Crow, Common Raven, Black-capped Chickadee, Red-breasted Nuthatch (old stands), House Wren, Eastern Bluebird, Hermit Thrush, American Robin, Brown Thrasher (young stands), Cedar Waxwing, Nashville Warbler, Chestnut-sided Warbler, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Kirtland’s Warbler (recent), Ovenbird, Connecticut Warbler (old stands), Common Yellowthroat, Scarlet Tanager (old stands), Eastern Towhee, Chipping Sparrow, Clay-colored Sparrow (young stands), Field Sparrow (young stands), White-throated Sparrow, Indigo Bunting, Brown-headed Cowbird, Baltimore Oriole, and Red Crossbill (old stands).

 

Marshland – 340,000 acres

Marshes feature both deep and shallow marshes with abundant surface and emergent vegetation. Common species are cattails, bulrush, pickerel weed, waterlilies and sedges. Marshes are variable in size with the largest such as Horicon or Crex Meadows containing the most diversity of species. In total, marshes occupy approximately 340,000 acres. Species characteristically associated with these wetland habitats are Canada Goose, Mute Swan, Trumpeter Swan, Tundra Swan, Gadwall, American Wigeon, American Black Duck, Mallard, Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveller, Northern Pintail, Green-winged Teal, Redhead, Ruddy Duck, Pied-billed Grebe, Red-necked Grebe, American Bittern, Least Bittern, Great Blue Heron, Great Egret, Green Heron, Black-crowned Night-Heron, Northern Harrier, King Rail (rare), Virginia Rail, Sora, Common Moorhen, American Coot, Sandhill Crane, Whooping Crane, Wilson’s Snipe, Wilson’s Phalarope, Franklin’s Gull (far west), Ring-billed Gull, Forster’s Tern, Black Tern, Belted Kingfisher, Willow Flycatcher, Eastern Kingbird, Warbling Vireo (trees lines), Purple Martin, Tree Swallow, Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Bank Swallow, Cliff Swallow, Barn Swallow, Sedge Wren, Marsh Wren, Yellow Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, Song Sparrow, Swamp Sparrow, Red-winged Blackbird, Yellow-headed Blackbird, and Common Grackle.

 

Sedge Meadow – 210,000 acres

High quality sedge meadows feature wetland sedge and grass communities with little or no invasion by exotic plant species such as reed canary grass, purple loosestrife and phragmites.  Abundant sedges predominate and in places, especially in the north, softer wiregrass sedges harbor distinctive avifauna. In total, high quality sedge meadows occupy approximately 210,000 acres. Species associated with these wetland habitats are Mallard, Blue-winged Teal, Ring-necked Peasant (winter roosts), Sharp-tailed Grouse (north), American Bittern, Northern Harrier, Yellow Rail (wiregrass sedges), Virginia Rail, Sora, Sandhill Crane, Whooping Crane, Wilson’s Snipe, American Woodcock, Wilson’s Phalarope, Black Tern, Short-eared Owl, Tree Swallow, Sedge Wren, Savannah Sparrow, LeConte’s Sparrow, Nelson’s Sharp-tailed Sparrow (wiregrass), Swamp Sparrow, Bobolink and Red-winged Blackbird.

 

Young Conifers – 150,000 acres

Young conifers feature early reestablishment of conifers whether by planting or due to natural seeding.  Dense patches of trees with many grasses and forbs present until the trees grow tall enough to shade the ground. In total, this habitat comprises approximately 150,000 acres. Species characteristically found in this habitat are American Kestrel, American Woodcock, Mourning Dove, Downy Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Eastern Kingbird, Blue Jay, American Crow, Tree Swallow, Barn Swallow, American Robin, Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher, Nashville Warbler, Chestnut-sided Warbler, Eastern Towhee, Chipping Sparrow, Clay-colored Sparrow (north), Field Sparrow (south), Song Sparrow, Indigo Bunting, Eastern Meadowlark, Brown-headed Cowbird and American Goldfinch.

 

White Oak Woodland – 140,000 acres  

White Oak Woodland is a habitat that is usually embedded within other oak and mesic forest types. The characteristic structure is tall nearly closed canopy white oak with open mid story and scattered small shrubs. In total, this habitat covers approximately 140,000 acres mostly in central and northwest Wisconsin. Species characteristically found in this habitat are Cooper’s Hawk, Wild Turkey, Mourning Dove, Screech Owl, Great-horned Owl, Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Whip-poor-will, Red-headed Woodpecker, Red-bellied Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Great-crested Flycatcher, Yellow-throated Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Blue Jay, American Crow, Black-capped Chickadee, White-breasted Nuthatch, House Wren, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Eastern Bluebird, American Robin, Brown Thrasher, Cerulean Warbler, Ovenbird, Scarlet Tanager, Eastern Towhee, Chipping Sparrow, Song Sparrow, Indigo Bunting, Brown-headed Cowbird, Baltimore Oriole and American Goldfinch.

 

Hemlock Forest – 120,000 acres

Hemlock stands feature nearly pure stands of hemlock with occasional yellow birch, sugar maple and white pine. Many times these stands are the oldest in the forested landscape. The ground layer is often sparse due to the efficient light capturing attributes of eastern hemlock. This habitat covers approximately 120,000 acres. Species characteristically found in this habitat are Ruffed Grouse, Sharp-shined Hawk, Broad-winged Hawk, Great-horned Owl, Barred Owl, Chimney Swift, Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Pileated Woodpecker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Least Flycatcher, Great-crested Flycatcher, Blue-headed Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Blue Jay, American Crow, Common Raven, Black-capped Chickadee, Red-breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper, Veery, Hermit Thrush, American Robin, Northern Parula, Black-throated Green Warbler, Blackburnian Warbler, Black and White Warbler, American Redstart (lower slopes and near streams), Ovenbird, Mourning Warbler (gaps), Canada Warbler (near wetlands), Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Chipping Sparrow, White-throated Sparrow, and Purple Finch.

 

Warm Season Grass Fields – 110,000 acres

Warm season grass plantings feature areas were original prairie grasses and forbs are planted to provide dense cover. Many different reasons are provided to plant fields to these prairie plants, but management is critical to maintain them. Without an active prescribed burn, mowing and sometimes herbicide application, these areas will convert to shrubby areas then forest. In total, these habitats comprise approximately 110,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Mallard, Blue-winged Teal, Ring-necked Pheasant, Gray Partridge, Northern Bobwhite, Northern Harrier, Red-tailed Hawk, American Kestrel (if nest boxes are provided), Mourning Dove, Short-eared Owl (mostly winter), Barn Swallow, Eastern Bluebird (if nest boxes are provided), American Robin, Sedge Wren, Brown Thrasher (edges), European Starling, Common Yellowthroat, Chipping Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Savannah Sparrow, Grasshopper Sparrow, Henslow’s Sparrow (south), Song Sparrow, Dickcissel (abundant forbs), Bobolink, Red-winged Blackbird, Eastern Meadowlark, Western Meadowlark (drier areas in large open landscapes) and Brown-headed Cowbird. 

 

Pine-Oak Barrens – 95,000 acres 

Diverse jack pine and oak barrens feature a dynamic system of shifting pattern of young to old patches of jack pine and northern pin oak. Open areas, sparse areas of shrubs and dense thickets of hazel are all common attributes of this natural community. This habitat covers approximately 95,000 acres. Species characteristically found in these habitats are northern Harrier, Red-tailed Hawk American Kestrel, Sharp-tailed Grouse, Killdeer, Upland Sandpiper, Black-billed Cuckoo, Mourning Dove, Whip-poor-will, Common Nighthawk, Red-headed Woodpecker, Eastern Kingbird, Barn Swallow, Blue Jay, Black-capped Chickadee, House Wren, Eastern Bluebird, Hermit Thrush, American Robin, Brown Thrasher, Blue-winged Warbler (south), Nashville Warbler, Chestnut-sided Warbler, Eastern Towhee, Chipping Sparrow, Clay-colored Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Vesper Sparrow, Grasshopper Sparrow, Lark Sparrow (sparse vegetation on sand), Song Sparrow, Northern Cardinal, Indigo Bunting, Red-winged Blackbird, Eastern Meadowlark, Brewer’s Blackbird, Brown-headed Cowbird, Orchard Oriole (oak barrens), Baltimore Oriole, and American Goldfinch.

 

Overgrown Savannas – 75,000 acres

Restored and overgrown savannas feature areas dominated by bur oak with other oak species and red cedar as associates. The bird species are very similar to white oak woodlands, but the savanna is presented to give context to how much we have altered this habitat. Formerly a common and some would say the most characteristic natural community in Wisconsin is now all but lost. Consider that Passenger Pigeon, Carolina Parakeet, Swallow-tailed Kite and Barn Owl utilized the bur oak savannas as their primary habitat, one can see how we have changed the face of the state. In total, this habitat covers approximately 75,000 acres mostly overgrown and closed in to dense forest. Species characteristically found in this habitat are Wild Turkey, Mourning Dove, Screech Owl, Great-horned Owl, Whip-poor-will, Common Nighthawk (in restored savannas), Red-headed Woodpecker, Red-bellied Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Least Flycatcher, Great-crested Flycatcher, Yellow-throated Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Blue Jay, American Crow, Black-capped Chickadee, White-breasted Nuthatch, House Wren, Eastern Bluebird, American Robin, Brown Thrasher, Blue-winged Warbler,  Eastern Towhee, Chipping Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Song Sparrow, Northern Cardinal, Indigo Bunting, Red-winged Blackbird, Brown-headed Cowbird, Orchard Oriole, and American Goldfinch.

 

Muskeg – 65,000 acres

Muskeg is the name for the short stature and sparse tree cover, black spruce bogs that are found in scattered low areas in northern and central Wisconsin. Black spruce is the dominant and often the only tree found. Occasional scattered tamaracks grow in the muskegs. Dense heaths of leatherleaf and other bog plants are the primary ground layer species. In total, this habitat covers approximately 65,000 acres. Species characteristically fond in this habitat are Spruce Grouse (if the habitat is large and its embedding in a conifer dominated landscape), Sharp-tailed Grouse (if the habitat is large and its embedded on open or barrens landscape), Merlin, Olive-sided Flycatcher, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (large trees near the edge), Gray Jay, Tree Swallow, Boreal Chickadee, Hermit Thrush, Nashville Warbler, Yellow-rumped Warbler (edges), Palm Warbler, Connecticut Warbler, Canada Warbler (near upland edges), Savannah Sparrow (open sedge and leatherleaf areas), Lincoln’s Sparrow, White-throated Sparrow, Dark-eyed Junco (far north, near edges), Purple Finch, and White-winged Crossbill.

 

Boreal Forest – 12,000 acres

Boreal forest is found only near the Great Lakes. The primary species composition is white spruce, white, pine, white cedar and white birch. Occasionally aspen, balsam fir, and balsam poplar are mixed in. This community is nearly gone from the state with an estimated 12,000 acres of extant and restorable forest remaining. Species characteristically found in this habitat are Sharp-shined Hawk, Merlin, Downy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Black-backed Woodpecker, Olive-sided Flycatcher, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Gray Jay, Blue Jay, Black-capped chickadee, Red-breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper, Winter Wren, Golden-crowned Kinglet, Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Swainson’s Thrush, Hermit Thrush, Cedar Waxwing, Nashville Warbler, Northern Parula, Magnolia Warbler, Cape May Warbler, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Blackburnian Warbler, Pine Warbler, Black & White Warbler, American Redstart, Ovenbird, Mourning Warbler, Canada Warbler, White-throated Sparrow, Dark-eyed Junco,  Purple Finch, Pine Siskin, and Evening Grosbeak.

 

Wet Prairie-Fen – 7,000 acres

Wet prairie and calcareous fen communities are almost extirpated from the state. They are dominate by well over 100 species of grasses and forbs and do not last long under when plowed and grazed. An estimate 7,000 acres is all that remains of these formerly common habitats. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Mallard, Blue-winged Teal, Ring-necked Pheasant, Northern Harrier, Red-tailed Hawk, American Kestrel (if nest boxes are provided), Upland Sandpiper, Wilson’s Snipe, King Rail, Sora Sandhill Crane, Willow Flycatcher, Eastern Kingbird, Barn Swallow, Eastern Bluebird (if nest boxes are provided), Sedge Wren, Yellow Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, Chipping Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Savannah Sparrow, Grasshopper Sparrow, Henslow’s Sparrow, Song Sparrow, Dickcissel (abundant forbs), Bobolink, Red-winged Blackbird, Eastern Meadowlark, and Brown-headed Cowbird.

 

Dry and Sand Prairie – 4,000 acres  

Dry and Sand Prairie are more threatened that the wetter prairies. Shorter grassed and sparser forbs indicate these types of prairie. In total, an estimated 4,000 acres are all that remain of this formerly common habitat. Species characteristically found in these habitats are Red-tailed Hawk American Kestrel, Northern Flicker, Mourning Dove, Common Nighthawk, Red-headed Woodpecker, Eastern Kingbird, Barn Swallow, Horned Lark, Black-capped Chickadee, House Wren, Eastern Bluebird, American Robin, Brown Thrasher, Eastern Towhee, Chipping Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Vesper Sparrow, Savannah Sparrow, Grasshopper Sparrow, Lark Sparrow (sparse vegetation on sand), Song Sparrow, Northern Cardinal, Indigo Bunting, Red-winged Blackbird, Eastern Meadowlark, Western Meadowlark, Brewer’s Blackbird, Brown-headed Cowbird, Orchard Oriole, and American Goldfinch.

 

Mudflats – a few to thousands of acres

Mudflats are comprised of wet mud, shallow water, and inundated short grassy areas. The amount of habitat varies annually for a handful of acres to several thousand during the flood of 2008. Species characteristic of these mudflat habitats are Northern Pintail, Green-winged Teal, Great Blue Heron, Great Egret, Peregrine Falcon, American Coot, Sandhill Crane, Black-bellied Plover, American Golden Plover, Semipalmated Plover, Killdeer, Greater Yellowlegs, Lesser Yellowlegs, Willet, Spotted Sandpiper, Solitary Sandpiper, Semipalmated Sandpiper, Least Sandpiper, White-rumped Sandpiper, Baird’s Sandpiper, Pectoral Sandpiper, Dunlin, Stilt Sandpiper, Short-billed Dowitcher, Long-billed Dowitcher, Wilson’s Snipe, Wilson’s Phalarope, Bonaparte’s Gull, Ring-billed Gull, Mourning Dove, European Starling, American Pipit, Savannah Sparrow, Lapland Longspur and Red-winged Blackbird.

 

Beaches – 2,000 acres

Sand and gravel beach communities are two of the very rarest habitats for birds in the state. An estimated 2,000 acres of beach is in the state, but only a few dozen acres are available to birds for nesting, due to the heavy use by recreationists.  Species characteristic of these beach habitats are American White Pelican, Double-crested Cormorant, Killdeer, Piping Plover, Caspian Tern, Common Tern, Forster’s Tern, Ring-billed Gull, Herring Gull, Common Nighthawk, Mourning Dove, Bank Swallow, and Barn Swallow.

 

Early June wildflowers: Early June is a great time to botanize by visiting numerous habitats. The spring floral display is still going strong especially in the Northwoods. While blooming is on the wane for most species in mesic forest, other habitats are just starting. Open bogs can have outstanding displays of arethusa orchids. The Northwoods, predictably is a little later and many of the late-May bloomers from the south are now in full bloom in the northern forests and meadows. The cool ravines along the south shore of Lake Superior have warmed enough that flowers are blooming in these vestiges of the boreal forest. The following table indicates some of the more common species to be expected on your ventures.

 

Table 1. Native Wildflowers with peak blooming times June 1 – 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lepidopteran activity continues: Plants in the woods and fields grow rapidly during June, thus providing food for many moth and butterfly species. Most of these species do best in summer and early fall. There is, however a contingent that does best earlier in the growing season. The following table lists a few of the more recognizable species, their habitat and larval food plants. One species on the list, the Karner blue butterfly, is a federally-listed species. This species is considered rather rare in the world, but it can be relatively common in “pine barrens” areas of the state from Waupaca to Burnett Counties. 

 

Table 2. Large and more recognizable Lepidopterans whose flight period either starts in early-June or is limited to this time period.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tidbits:

  • Early June is peak time for white-tailed deer does to drop their fawns.

  • The last of the spring migrant birds are still making their way through the state. Especially significant are the near shore areas of Lake Superior at places like Wisconsin Point, the Apostle Islands, and northern Bayfield County. These locals can have significant numbers of migrants in this time period.

  • Larger grassland areas such as Buena Vista and Crex Meadows may harbor nesting Short-eared Owls. If they are nesting, dusk can be a great time to observe courtship displays such as wing-slapping.

  • Saw-whet Owls reach their peak calling activity on their territories. The little ventriloquists can toot non-stop for most of the night.

  • Eastern tent caterpillar webs can be readily seen on black cherries.

  • Green and mink frogs reach their peak calling activity in Northwoods wetlands.

  • On moist humid evenings after a recent rain, naturalists should check sphagnum laden forest wetlands for the presence of the four-toed salamander. It is at this time they may be moving about to find suitable spots to lay their eggs in the mosses.

  • Care should be taken while driving back roads in the Northwoods. Early June is the time for wood turtles to lay their eggs. They normally chose nest sites on sandy banks near high quality northern streams. Now days, they try to nest on or next to gravel and sand roads, often to their demise.

  • Spot-winged ant lions are known more for their soil movement than their appearance. The funnel shaped divots in sandy soil is a clue their existence. By digging underneath the funnel the large-headed larva can be seen. Early June is the time to observe the winged adults. Look for black spots on the gossamer-like forewings.

  • Early June is peak time for smallmouth bass statewide and largemouth bass in the north to spawn.

  • Naturalist visiting boggy areas in early June to view the wildflowers and bumblebees should keep an eye out for typical bog inhabiting dragonflies such as, Hudsonian whiteface, crimson-ringed whiteface, red-waisted whiteface, frosted whiteface, calico pennant, dusky clubtail, American emerald, ebony boghaunter, and four-spotted skimmer.

  • Cabin dwellers should watch their lights and surrounding forest for common and more recognizable beetles.  June beetles and irrescent chafer will crash into your outdoor lights, and the surrounding aspen forest can hold golden yellow beetles known as goldsmith beetles.

  • Look for decaying twigs that may have crowned coral fungi decomposing it.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Name

Arethusa

Basswood

Mocassin flower

Canada Mayflower

Wild columbine

Ox-eye daisy

Rose species

Prickly pear cactus

Starflower

Bunchberry

Fringed polygala

Starry false Solomon's-seal

Three-leaf Solomon's-seal

Buckbean

Wild calla

Twinflower

Wild sarsaparilla

Labrador tea

Bog rosemary

Highbush cranberry

Daisy fleabane

White baptisia

Alumroot

Golden ragwort

Spiderwort

Canada anemone

Cow parsnip

Puttyroot or Adam & Eve orchid

False heather

Honewort

Small yellow lady's-slipper

Mountain ash

Indian cucumber-root

Golden fumewort

Pale corydalis

Inflated sedge

Graceful sedge

Tussock sedge

Yellow water crowfoot

Habitat

Open bogs

Deciduous forest

Acid sandy to boggy conifers

Nearly ubiquitous Northwoods

In Lake Superior drainge

Old fields and grassy areas

Prairies and grassy savannas

Sandy prairies

Acid sandy to boggy conifers

Moist conifer to boreal forest

Dry conifer woodlands

Prairies, woods, savannas

Acid bogs

Open bogs

bogs, cold shallow water

Moist conifer to boreal forest

Dry to moist woods

Wet conifer forest

Wet conifer forest, open bogs

Wet shrubby areas

Dry prairies and oldfields

Dry-mesic to wet-mesic prairies

Dry prairies and savannas

Rocky areas, prairies

Prairies

Wet-mesic prairies and meadows

Streambanks

Rich woods

Sand barrens

Dry to moist woods

Alkaline wet conifer forest

Boreal forest

Rich beech forest in the northeast

Rocky outcrops

Rocky outcrops

Floodplains

Floodplains

Ubiquitous in sedge meadows

Shallow water

Habitat

Openings in the boreal forest

Grassy openings in the north

Grassy openings in the forest

Open bogs and sedge meadows

Openings near streams

Marsh and bog edges

Moist openings in the Northwoods

old fields, meadows

Bogs

Fields

Pine barrens

Woods and edges

Pine barrens and forests

Dunes

Oak woods

Deciduous woods

Species

Arctic skipper

Indian skipper

Hobomok skipper

Frigga fritillary

Silvery checkerspot

Harris checkerspot

Northern pearl crescent

Monarch (first arrivals north)

Jutta arctic

Northern cloud wing

Karner blue butterfly (north)

Small-eyed sphinx

Slender clearwing

Oithona Tiger moth

Hickory tussock moth

Common spring moth (a day flier)

Larval food

Grasses

Grasses

Grasss

Cranberry and bog rosemary

Asters

Flat-topped white aster

Asters

milkweed species

Sedges and cottongrass

Legumes

wild lupine

birch and aspen

low blueberry

beach pea

Oaks and hickories

Locusts